A history and physical examination, focusing on risk factors for heart, lung and infectious complications, and a determination of a patient's functional capacity, are essential to any preoperative evaluation. In addition, the type of surgery influences the overall surgical risk and the need for further cardiac evaluation.

Many heart conditions such as Unstable angina, myocardial infarction within six weeks and aortic or peripheral vascular surgery place a patient into a high-risk category for perioperative cardiac complications.We provide pre-surgical clearance for adult patients with or without a known history of heart disease.